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Medicinal Herb: Pinus sylvestris

Essential Oil of Pine

Biological Name:
(Pinus sylvestris)


Other Names:
Scots pine, White pine, Scotch pine

Pinus Sylvestris


Pine trees are evergreen conifers (cone-bearing trees) growing up to 35 m in height and 1 m trunk diameter. It’s native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Fennoscandia.

Active Compounds:

The main compounds of Pinus sylvestris are: α-pinene, 3-carene, β-phellandrene or β-pinene[1].

Scientific Evidence:


Traditional Applications in Herbal Medicine:

Needles and twigs are sources of pine essential oils, pine resin-derived turpentine oil, and pine sprouts. The essential oil is used to treat coughs, chronic bronchitis, and other irritations or infections of the respiratory tract. Pine essential oil is also use to relieve muscle soreness and stiffness, arthritis, and neuralgia.

Needles and twigs are source of pine essential oils (EOs), used to treat respiratory infections based on their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, expectorant and analgesic potential [1]. Herbalists and Medical Aromatherapists utilise Pine oil frequently in treating lung and upper respiratory health issues.

Pine Oil is known to soothe muscles and joints that may be afflicted with arthritis and rheumatism or other conditions characterised by inflammation, soreness, aches, and pain.

The P. sylvestris needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumours unresponsive to endocrine treatment [2].



  1. Allenspach, M., Valder, C., Flamm, D., Grisoni, F., & Steuer, C. (2020). Verification of Chromatographic Profile of Primary Essential Oil of Pinus sylvestris L. Combined with Chemometric Analysis. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(13), 2973. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25132973

  2. Hoai, N. T., Duc, H. V., Thao, d., Orav, A., & Raal, A. (2015). Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells. Pharmacognosy magazine, 11(Suppl 2), S290–S295. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.166052

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Page last updated: 26th June 2020

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